Routing and navigation with Angular 14

Updated : 27/12/22 danny

What are we going to do?

Our goal is to integrate Routing into a Web Application.
We will use the Angular version 14.0.4 javascript framework.

This is Step 2 of our Angular guide which will allow us to obtain a PWA type Web Application.
We will use a basic project generated simply with Angular CLI, the tool advocated by angular.

All created sources are indicated at the end of the tutorial.

The application is at the following address

How to do it ?

The summary of what we are going to do

  • Before starting
    What is routing.
  • Project structure
    Before integrating our modifications, we must choose a structure.
  • Initialization of the project
    Using angular Cli
  • Perform the tests
    Unit tests and end tot end tests.
  • Source code
    For the most in a hurry the complete code of the project on github.

    Just go to the following address

Before you start

A website is made up of a multitude of pages
These pages are written with HTML language.
HTML means HyperText Markup Language.

Hypertext is the technology that will link a page to other pages via hyperlinks.

Routing is the mechanism for navigating from one page to another on a website.

For example, if you type these two urls in your browser.

Depending on the movie name indicated in the url, the Wikipedia web application will determine the processing to be performed.
This treatment will display the web page corresponding to the requested movie (here Braveheart or

This is called Routing.

This operating principle is omnipresent in the use of a website, we need to apply as soon as possible in a project.

We will implement this mechanism in our Angular project.

Creation of the Angular project

To be able to continue this tutorial we must have some elements

  • Node.js : Javascript plateform
  • Git : Le logiciel de gestion de versions. 
  • Angular CLI : L'outil fourni par Angular.
  • Visual Studio code : Un éditeur de code.

You can consult the following tutorial that explains in detail how to do

Nous allons utiliser un projet existant dont les caractéristiques sont

  • Genéré avec Angular CLI

# Create a demo directory (the name here is arbitrary)
mkdir demo

# Go to this directory
cd demo

# Get the source code on your workstation
git clone

# Go to the directory that was created
cd angular-react-starter
cd angular

# Run the installation of dependencies (or libraries)
npm install

# Run the program
npm run start

# Check its operation by launching in your browser the command


The question of the structure of our project arises very quickly.
This structure will condition the modifications that we will make as the project develops.

Angular's advice is as follows

When creating the project with Angular CLI the default structure is as follows

|-- e2e/
|-- src/
    |-- app
    |-- assets
    |-- environnement

We will follow this way of proceeding by imagining the elements which could constitute our project.

|-- e2e/
|-- src/
    |-- app
        |-- components
        |-- directives
        |-- mocks
        |-- modules
        |-- pipes
        |-- services
    |-- assets
    |-- environnement

As we will see in the lazy loading tutorial, an Angular project is based on the modules.
This important part will be constructed as follows.

The choice we made is arbitrary, your structure can take any other form.
This choice will nevertheless be followed in the following tutorials.

  • modules/general will bring together the elements found in all projects.
  • modules/application will group the application-specific elements.

To create a new project it will be enough to copy the basic project and to adapt modules / application to our needs.

|-- app
    |-- components
    |-- directives
    |-- mocks
    |-- modules
        |-- general   (contains the elements found in all project types)
            |-- not-found
            |-- home
            |-- contact
            |-- login
            |-- signup
        |-- application  (contains the specific elements to our project)
            |-- item01
            |-- item02
            |-- ....
            |-- itemXX
     |-- pipes
     |-- services
|-- assets
|-- environnement


Angular offers an angular@router library that allows you to manage the routing.

Throughout this tutorial we will try to use the commands offered by angular-cli to automatically generate the necessary source code.

First we will create four components that will be used in the routing.

  • Home
  • Contact
  • About
  • ​​​​​​​Login
  • Signup
  • NotFound

Just run the following commands.

ng g correspond to ng generate

# Creating new components
ng generate component modules/general/home --module=app
ng generate component modules/general/contact --module=app
ng generate component modules/general/about --module=app
ng generate component modules/general/login --module=app
ng generate component modules/general/signup --module=app
ng generate component modules/general/not-found --module=app

# Creating new components (method 2)
ng g c modules/general/home --module=app
ng g c modules/general/contact --module=app
ng g c modules/general/about --module=app
ng g c modules/general/login --module=app
ng g c modules/general/signup --module=app
ng g c modules/general/not-found --module=app

The modules and modules/general directories are created by the executed command.
All files related to each component are automatically created by angular CLI.

For example for the component Home 4 files are created

  • home.component.css    (CSS code dedicated to design)
  • home.component.html   (HTML code )
  • home.component.spec.ts  (component unit test code)
  • home.component.ts    (logical part in typescript of our component)

The app.module.ts file is automatically modified as follows.

The 6 components are imported into the module app.module.ts
Then are used in the decorator @ngModule at the object level metadata declarations.

import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { HomeComponent } from './modules/general/home/home.component';
import { ContactComponent } from './modules/general/contact/contact.component';
import { AboutComponent } from './modules/general/about/about.component';
import { LoginComponent } from './modules/general/login/login.component';
import { SignupComponent } from './modules/general/signup/signup.component';
import { NotFoundComponent } from './modules/general/not-found/not-found.component';
import { AppRoutingModule } from './app-routing.module';

  declarations: [
  imports: [
  providers: [],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
export class AppModule { }

We will now follow the following tips from Angular

The best practice is to load and configure the router in a routing module.
This module will be imported into the App module (appModule).
By convention the module will be named AppRoutingModule in the file app-routing.module.ts and located in the directory src/app.

We will create

  • app-routing.module.ts

For that we will use the following command angular-cli

# Creation of the routing
ng generate module app-routing --flat --module=app

# Creation of the routing (method 2)
ng g m app-routing --flat --module=app

Then you must modify the following files

  • app-routing.module.ts
  • styles.css
  • app.component.html
  • app.component.css
  • app.component.ts
  • app.component.spec.ts
  • app.e2e-spec.ts
  • app.po.ts

This will handle the desired routing and called components.

In the app-routing.module.ts file

  • Import the Routes and RouterModule modules
  • Configure Routes
  • call the forRoot method of RouterModule
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';
import { Routes, RouterModule } from '@angular/router';

import { AboutComponent } from './modules/general/about/about.component';
import { ContactComponent } from './modules/general/contact/contact.component';
import { HomeComponent } from './modules/general/home/home.component';
import { LoginComponent } from './modules/general/login/login.component';
import { SignupComponent } from './modules/general/signup/signup.component';
import { NotFoundComponent } from './modules/general/not-found/not-found.component';

const routes: Routes = [
  { path: '', component: HomeComponent, },
  { path: 'contact', component: ContactComponent },
  { path: 'about', component: AboutComponent },
  { path: 'login', component: LoginComponent },
  { path: 'signup', component: SignupComponent },
  { path: '**', component: NotFoundComponent }

  imports: [RouterModule.forRoot(routes)],
  exports: [RouterModule],
  declarations: []
export class AppRoutingModule { }
body {
  color: black;
  font-weight: 400;

In the AppComponent component we will take care to add the <router-outlet> element to the file app.component.html.
It will tell the router where to display the routed graphics.

The routerLink element will create the link to the desired pages.

<div class="app">
      <h1>{{ title }}</h1>
      <h2> {{ version }}</h2>
        <li><a routerLink="/">Home</a></li>
        <li><a routerLink="/about">About</a></li>
        <li><a routerLink="/contact">Contact</a></li>
        <li><a routerLink="/login">Login</a></li>
        <li><a routerLink="/signup">Signup</a></li>


    <a href="">2021 -</a>

h1 {
  color: blue;

.app {
  font-family: Arial, Helvetica, sans-serif;
  max-width: 500px;
  margin: auto;

import { Component } from '@angular/core';

  selector: 'app-root',
  templateUrl: './app.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./app.component.css']
export class AppComponent {
  title = 'angular-starter';
  version = 'Angular version 13.1.1';

We need to add the RouterTestingModule module in the unit tests of the App component.
This addition is done at the corresponding test file app.component.spec.ts.

import { TestBed } from '@angular/core/testing';
import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { RouterTestingModule } from '@angular/router/testing';

describe('AppComponent', () => {
  beforeEach(async () => {
    await TestBed.configureTestingModule({
      imports: [
      declarations: [

  it('should create the app', () => {
    const fixture = TestBed.createComponent(AppComponent);
    const app = fixture.componentInstance;

  it(`should have as title 'angular-starter'`, () => {
    const fixture = TestBed.createComponent(AppComponent);
    const app = fixture.componentInstance;

  it('should render title', () => {
    const fixture = TestBed.createComponent(AppComponent);
    const compiled = fixture.nativeElement as HTMLElement;


It remains only to test the following scripts.

# Development
npm run start

# Test of the not-found page

# Tests
npm run test

# Production
npm run build